We managed to design Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel for 70MPa (700bar, 10.000psi) in conformable flat shape, quite uncommon on the market. This require special tank structure’s design similar to quilted mattress, with reinforcement studs across the thickness of tank. This is all about huge forces inside the container of compressed fluid. The drawings point patent pending application P-433554 at UPRP, dated 15/04/2020. This is a general shape of flat conformable tank while many embodiments available may result from it, including other multi-chamber containers: ovals, cylindrical, oblate spheres, barrels, different diameters, not flat but curve surface etc. The idea of flat overlapping multi-chamber tanks is quite universal and let make them really conformable with complicated compartment shapes.
As we found out, flat composite containers can be interesting in aerospace industry as well, thus we propose already developed tanks for automotive, able to be filled with hydrogen in all (obviously apart solid) states of aggregation: gaseous, liquefied, supercritical in one type vessel provided for any cryogenic and/or compressed fluid. If any aerospace industry member would be interested in such design we are open for further implementation of our innovative solution in plane wings or vast deck floor or fuselage structure as multi-chamber idea allow to modify shape continuously and freely.
One may dive in wreck or cave and require flat breathing apparatus slim and handy while still requiring some hours of spare air available. This is a flat 93MPa (930bar, 13.500psi) composite backpack with multi-cell shape. The 8l water volume is as small as 230*315*60mm only while double volume is 315*445*60mm with 16l water volume, both in Kevlar bags for maximum endurance and safety.
There is a need for distribution stations or industrial backyards to store huge amount of pressurized hydrogen for immediate use in H2 dispenser for automotive or the gas turbine consumption for Combined Heat and Power generation, chemical process or mobile application. All such utilization examples need to use large tanks for efficient ground surface use, economically hide storage underground or expose large energy storage fields is salt caverns. All such applications require big cylindrical or sphere pressure vessels for compressed and supercritical hydrogen. We manage to offer the range of tubular vessels, both individual and in bigger stacks immersed in water for safety reasons. Supercritical stacks for long dormancy can be equipped with vacuum chamber.
The autonomous station is powered only by CNG, without an electrical grid connection, it is possible to make a modular, container version, as an universal CNG, LNG, CH2 distribution station and DC/AC electric vehicle charging station.
The set of cascade compressors need to use electrolysis stack (can be external) with output 16bara, some 2000Nm3/h, 45°C, where hydrogen is gradually, 6-stage compressed (maybe 3-double compressor units with intermediate cooling) to 70MPa only for storage, while to the end cooled in helium heat exchanger to 33K. This hydrogen station assumes cryogenic-compressed pressure vessel of 70MPa 6cbm water (2,4m diameter sphere), while additional smaller compressor 70MPa to 87,5MPa for filling dispenser with cryopump. One may take into account another embodiment with 77K output with nitrogen cooling only. The above installation was developed to be mobile in 40’ HC ISO containers or 53’ semitrailer.
We use standard ASME Section X guidelines, but also check by FEM analysis. This simplify prototyping as well as type approval.
Carbon Reinforced Pressure Vessels seems to be the best solution at the moment to make lightweight, very strong tanks.
Forget small steel bottles and heavy tubes! Composite light storage become available. There are designed 5 types vessels, of which type III, IV & V are composite structures.
We propose all type composite tanks, with domain of type III for cryogenic and type V for compressed gas.